5. The SEDPAK Facies EDITOR
This chapter describes the definition and display of facies in the SEDPAK SIMULATION window (Figure 5.1.1). It explains how to define facies from the Sedpak Facies Editor menu which is activated from the SEDPAK LAUNCH menu. It often takes a few moments for the Sedpak Facies Editor to appear on the computer screen and while waiting for the editor to appear, the FACIES button on the LAUNCH menu should not be pressed again, or more than one Sedpak Facies Editor will appear.
Figure 5.1.1. Facies output from simulation run.
Inputs: Facies Attributes
Listed below are the facies Attributes on the Sedpak Facies Editor (Figure 5.1.2) which are used to define facies character:
a. % range of shale, sand, benthic carbonate, pelagic carbonate, and total carbonate within a time step.
b. Range of distances from the shoreline (depositional shoreline break) for sediment accumulation within a time step (miles or kms from the shore).
c. Range of elevation for sediment accumulation at the time of deposition, with respect to sea level within a time step (meters or feet).
d. Porosity range of shale, sand, carbonate, and average of all lithologies within a time step.
%sh = Percentage range of shale
0.0 ¾ %sh¾ 100
The percentage range of shale (%sh) present within a column for a particular time step. [Type = process; non-negative real; dimension = percentage]
%sn = Percentage range of sand
0.0 ¾ %sn¾ 100
The percentage range of sand (%sn) present within a column for a particular time step. [Type = process; non-negative real; dimension = percentage]
%tc = Percentage range of total carbonate
0.0 ¾ %tc¾ 100
The percentage range of total carbonate (%tc) present within a column for a particular time step. [Type = process; non-negative real; dimension = percentage]
%pc = Percentage range of pelegic carbonate
0.0 ¾ %pc¾ 100
The percentage range of pelegic carbonate (%pc) present within a column for a particular time step. [Type = process; non-negative real; dimension = percentage]
ds = Distance range from the shore
- < ds <
The range of distances from the shoreline which should be displayed. [Type = process; positive numbers seaward, negative numbers landward; dimension = kilometers or miles]
el = Elevation range from sea level
- < el<
The elevation range from sea level which should be displayed. [Type = process; negative numbers below sea level, positive numbers above sea level; dimension = feet or meters]
%sh = Porosity range for shale
0.0 ¾ %sh¾ 100
The percentage range (%sh) for which shale porosity should be displayed. [Type = process; non-negative real; dimension = percentage]
%sn = Porosity range for sand
0.0 ¾ %sn¾ 100
The percentage range (%sn) for which sand porosity should be displayed. [Type = process; non-negative real; dimension = percentage]
%c = Porosity range for carbonate
0.0 ¾ %c¾ 100
The percentage range (%c) for which carbonate porosity should be displayed. [Type = process; non-negative real; dimension = percentage]
%al= Average porosity range for all lithologies
0.0 ¾ %al¾ 100
The percentage range (%al ) for which the average porosity for all lithologies should be displayed. [Type = process; non-negative real; dimension = percentage]
%bc = Percentage range of benthic carbonate
0.0 ¾ %bc¾ 100
The percentage range of benthic carbonate (%bc) present within a column for a particular time step. [Type = process; non-negative real; dimension = percentage]
A particular facies may be defined on the basis of one, all, or some of the above listed facies Attributes. The Facies Name in the Prioritized Facies list on the Sedpak Facies Editor is defined by the dimensions of a particular Attribute (Minimum and Maximum values). The minimum and maximum values are entered in the scrolled area within the editor. Each Facies is assigned a Color and Priority. The Priority sets the position of the facies in the Prioritized Facies list on the left hand side of the Sedpak Facies Editor dialog and resolves conflicts with overlapping facies definitions. Several Attributes may be used to define a particular facies. Some of these Attributes may have numerical qualities that overlap between different facies. In the event that several facies overlap, a higher Priority takes precedence over a lower one. The facies with the higher Priority will be plotted over the facies with a lower rank. If no Priority has been set, then the program selects the facies Priority in the order that the facies were defined with the Sedpak Facies Editor dialog. It should be remembered that if a two component system is being considered then if 0% is entered for the percentage of one component then this represents 100% of the other component too. If one component is to be favored over another it should be given a higher priority.
In order to use more than 45 facies, some colors will need to be used twice. Therefore, if more than 45 facies are defined, care must be taken when assigning duplicate colors. When defining attributes, it is necessary to make sure the Attribute toggle is clicked on and is red, if this attribute is to be applied to the facies being defined. If at some later date, this Attribute is not required to define the facies in question, it may be turned off. If an entire facies definition is to be ignored, simply turn off all of the attributes for that facies.
Facies are displayed in the simulation window by selecting the Basin-Facies mode on the SEDPAK EXEC panel and either concurrently selecting a pre-defined facies (.facies) file or defining a new facies (.facies) file using the Sedpak Facies Editor.
Figure 5.1.2. Sedpak Facies Editor window.
To use pre-defined facies (.facies) files in conjunction with a data (.db) file being currently executed, Basin-Facies is selected from the Display Modes option menu on the EXEC panel. Next, a previously defined SEDPAK facies (.facies) file is selected using the Select Facies Definition file option from the View pull-down menu (see Section 2.06 for details on file loading and saving). This facies (.facies) file defines the facies attributes displayed in the SEDPAK simulation output. This file will be used by all data (.db) files being simulated until another facies (.facies) file is selected.
The Sedpak Facies Editor has three pull-down menus located along the upper left of the menu bar. These are File, Facies, and Display. A Help button is located at the right end of the menu bar. The options on the File pull-down menu include Open, Merge, Import, Save, Save As..., Close and Quit. Open activates a dialog for retrieving a facies (.facies) file (see Section 2.6 for editing). A file can be selected, edited, and saved as the existing facies (.facies) file name with Save, or as a new facies (.facies) file with the Save As ... option.
A new facies (.facies) file can be generated by using the Merge option, which allows a previously defined facies (.facies) file to be merged with the current file. The Import option allows pre-existing sets of facies attributes which are attached to data (.db) files (files prior to the SEDPAK 4.1 release) to be selected from a File selection dialog.
The facies pull-down menu enables facies to be created and manipulated. The options on this menu are New, Copy, Delete, Rename, and Create Range.
Figure 5.1.3. Dialog for New facies name.
The New option is selected to define a new facies. This activates a dialog with the prompt, Name for new facies, which has a type-in area (Figure 5.1.3) to enter the name of the facies to be defined. The OK button at the base of the dialog is clicked. This causes the name which appears in the Facies Name window to be displayed on the Prioritized Facies list. The list Attributes can now be used to define a particular facies. Select the Attribute required by pressing the toggle button adjacent to the Attribute. The toggle turns red and is depressed when the Attribute is active. Edit the minimum value for the Attribute in the type-in area labeled Minimum. Edit the maximum value for the attribute in the type-in area labeled Maximum. The Priority of the Facies is determined by the order in which Facies Names are defined or by using the Priority slider on the Sedpak Facies Editor.
Figure 5.1.4. Color Palette for facies definition.
Next, select the color preferred for this facies by invoking the Color Palette (Figure 5.1.4) with the Color button (Figure 5.1.2). 45 unique colors are available for defining facies. Once a color has been selected for a facies, and the Color Palette is no longer needed, the Cancel button can be pressed. To aid in editing a number of facies, the Color Palette can be kept up as long as the Sedpak Facies Editor dialog is active.
Copy will allow a facies to be duplicated and saved as a new facies. If an existing facies is selected from the Prioritized Facies list, and Copy is pressed, this activates the dialog with the prompt, Name for new facies (Figure 5.1.3) which is used for entering a new name for the copied facies Attribute and its associated Minimum and Maximum values. Once OK is pressed then this new facies can now have its Attribute and its associated Minimum and Maximum values edited with the Sedpak Edit dialog.
Should a particular facies no longer be required, select the name from the Prioritized Facies list. Press the Delete option on the Facies pull-down menu and the facies will be removed from the list after confirming the deletion.
A facies name can be changed at any time by clicking on the Rename option and using the Name for new facies dialog (Figure 5.1.3) a new name.
Figure 5.1.5. Dialog for creating a range of new facies and naming them
on the basis of their character.
The Create Range option activates a dialog (Figure 5.1.5) for creating a prioritized range of new facies. This range is generated by first selecting the Attribute option which characterizes the facies; in this case % Sand. Then a Minimum Value (in this case 1%) and a Maximum Value (in this case 100%) are entered followed by the Increment for the range. This range of data is created within the Sedpak Facies Editor and automatically assigned a priority, name, and color when OK is pressed.
The order in which the Facies Names are displayed in the Prioritized Facies list on the Sedpak Facies Editor can be changed by using the Display pull-down menu and activating the Sort by Name and Sort by Rank options.
After a number of facies have been defined, their definitions may be reviewed by using the Summary option at the base of the menu. The Facies Summary table will be activated (Figure 5.1.6). This table contains a complete listing of all the facies defined within the facies file and the settings of their attributes. If the table is currently displayed, in order to view changes made to the facies, it is necessary to press the Update button at the base of the Facies Summary window. The Print button will send the table to be printed on the machine specified in the .sedpakrc file (see Section 2.17).
Reminder: Don't forget to save the .facies file.
Figure 5.1.6. Facies Summary table.
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